hads can be dimpled if the stylus penetrates only partially. If the voter did not apply sufficient pressure to the stylus, the chad it will not come apart from the card, and we will have a chad hangover.
A pregnant chad will result if none of the corners of the chad template come apart, but there is an indication that the stylus was indeed pressed, but not with sufficient pressure.
A chad that has come loose on any one of the sides will indicate that the voter did not apply sufficient pressure to remove all four corners, but enough pressure to remove some of them. Any removed corner will indicate the voter's intent was to vote for the candidate.
More important than the chad separation is the machine sort, which will separate votes that have never been counted from those that have.
To separate to votes, a machine must not
be able to shine a laser light beam across
the chad template. This will normally happen
with pregnant chads, but not with those with
some degree of separation. If the separation
is enough to trigger the laser CCD pixel
matrix with enough light, then the vote will
be sorted into the counted bin, even though
it may have only a partial chad break, and
was in fact not counted by the first pass.
The question is what is the sensibility of
each of the voting machines to the laser
light shining on the pixel CCD of the card
reader? If the laser light must fill the
entire chad template, then only full chad
removals will not be discarded into the undervote
bin. However, it may well be that the CCD
is programmed to accept any light within
he template matrix to register the vote.
In other words, the same machines must be used in both the post election pass, and the separation sorts, in order to insure the same CCD sensibility is programmed into them.
What if the chads that were pregnant then
lose their chads, by handling the cards and
fanning them, (a common practice by card
operators)? Then, the chads will shine some
laser light onto the CCD matrix, and the
card will register as having voted for one
of the candidates, which was not the case
on the first pass.
In my opinion, these problems do not allow
for a full and complete count of the Florida
election of 2000 - ever, and therefore the
election results are indeterminate. The Florida
Legislature must deal with this event and
solve it post haste, by allocating a parity
of electoral votes to each candidate. I would
not unduly worry about precedent, since this
is the last election where these old mechanical
machines will be used.
December 12, 2000
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